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Sumud and the Wall conference

Contributed by Arab Educational Institute on 12.11.2011:


30 April – 1 May, 2010

Conference program

Venue: Bethlehem University, Furno Hall

Initiators: Oxford Brookes University (UK), Paris-Est University (France) and the Arab Educational Institute (Palestine)

Academic partners: Al-Quds Open University and Bethlehem University (Palestine) and Utrecht University (Netherlands)


The conference is organized by Oxford Brookes University (UK), Paris-Est University (France) and the Arab Educational Institute (AEI-Open Windows, Bethlehem), in cooperation with Al-Quds Open University, Bethlehem University (Department of Humanities) and Utrecht University (Center for Conflict Studies) as academic partners. The Arab Educational Institute (AEI-Open Windows) is locally responsible for coordination.

Academic conference committee

An academic conference committee is responsible for all matters related to conference contents. Its members are: Eng Imad Hodali (Al Quds Open University), Dr Walid Mustafa (Bethlehem University), Dr Brigitte Piquard (Paris-Est and Oxford Brookes universities), Prof. Mark Swenarton (Oxford Brookes University), Dr Irna van der Molen (Utrecht University) and Dr Toine van Teeffelen (AEI-Open Windows).

Spokespersons: Dr. Brigitte Piquard and Dr. Toine van Teeffelen.

Aims of the conference

While addressing a sensitive political, human and humanitarian topic, the conference will uphold meticulous academic standards as well as principles of international law. The conference aims to promote a free and lively flow of ideas across academic disciplines. The conference committee hopes that the ideas discussed at the conference will strengthen the understanding and knowledge of Walls and occupation of space as well as of resilience and sumud practices. These understandings will be of constructive use in various applied academic fields, including that of the proposed field of “Wall Studies,” as well as in the work of professionals and practitioners dealing with Walls and their consequences.

Opinions of the speakers will be all their own.


There will be English-Arabic and Arabic-English translation during the conference.


The conference has been financially made possible by Oxfam Novib, Cordaid and Stichting De Straatkrant, both from the Netherlands. The conference committee is deeply grateful for their generous support.


Friday 30 April

8:30 – 9:00 Registration

9:00 – 12:30 Morning program

9:00 – 9:10 Welcome: Fr Peter Bray, Vice-Chancellor of Bethlehem University.

9:10 – 9:30 Film: Hanna Musleh Walling In Walling Out: A Bethlehem Story: Documentary | Palestine/USA | 2005.

9:30 – 9:50 Brigitte Piquard (Oxford Brookes University, UK, Université Paris-Est, France), Sumud and the Wall: Symbolic Violence and Resilience.

Session 1: The Wall, Space and Violence

9:50 – 10:30

Chair: Toine van Teeffelen

 Harriet Malinowitz (Long Island University, US), Zionism and Propaganda in the Age of Unreason: The Massive Walls of Public Opinion.

 Jane Toby (State University of New York, New Paltz, US) Communicating Across Walls: Extending the Concepts of “Sumud” and the “Wall.”

10:30 – 11:00 Coffee/Tea Break

Continuation session 1

11:00 – 12:30

Chair: Irna van der Molen

 Toine van Teeffelen (AEI-Open Windows, Bethlehem), Sumud vs the Wall.

 Yara Sharif (University of Westminster), In Search for Spaces of Possibility: Re-reading the Palestinian Spatio-Political Map. By Skype conference.

 Discussion with all speakers session 1.

12:30 – 14:30 Prayer break / Lunch at Bethlehem University.

14:30 – 18:00 Afternoon program

Session 2: Life near the Wall

14:30 – 15:50

Chair: Imad Hodali

 Saida Affouneh (Al Quds Open University), Salam says ‘The Wall is a Snake’: Impact of the Wall on Palestinian Children’s Education.

 Imad A. Ishtayyeh and Hosni Awad (Al Quds Open University), The Influence of the Wall on the Structure of Social Relations in the Palestinian Family. In Arabic.

 Discussion with speakers.

15:50 – 16:20 Coffee/Tea break

Continuation session 2

16:20 – 18:00

Chair: Imad Hodali

 Claudia Devaux (Holy Land Institute, San Francisco, US), Reaching Customers beyond the Wall: A Case Study of the Praxis.

 Inge Tiemann, Lucia Russo, Andrea Merli, Elise Aghazarian, Rachel’s Tomb: An Alien in her Hometown? Perceptions from the Other Side of the Wall.

 Discussion with speakers.

18:00 – 18:30 Transport to Rachel’s Tomb area in Bethlehem

18:45 – 20:30 Cultural event near the Wall at Rachel’s Tomb

 Testimonies of women living near the Wall

 Two brief animated films about children/youth and the Wall developed by Camera Etc. and AEI: Warde and Hduud (2008): 30 minutes.

 Snacks


Saturday May 1

9:00 – 12:30 Morning program

9:00 – 9:10 Opening and reflection May 1, Workers’ Day

Session 3: Activism and Sumud practices

9:10 – 10:30

Chair: Walid Mustafa

 Ratib Abu Rahmeh (Al Quds Open University), The Experience of Bil’in in Popular and Peaceful Resistance against the Wall and the Settlements. In Arabic.

 Mazin Qumsiyeh (Bethlehem University), Popular Resistance: Past Successes and Future Prospects.

 Bill Thomson (University of St Andrews, Scotland), Effective Non-Violent Action: The Wall and Beyond.

 Rami Isaac (Breda University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands), Moving From Pilgrimage to ‘Dark’ Tourism: Reinventing Palestine.

10:30 – 11:00 Coffee/tea break

Continuation session 3

Chair: Walid Mustafa

11:00 – 11:40

 Discussion with speakers session 3.

Session 4: Towards Wall Studies

Chair: Brigitte Piquard

11:40 – 12:30

 Adnan Ayash (Al Quds Open University), The Segregation Wall in the West Bank: Social Reflections on the Future of the Palestinian People. In Arabic.

 Anwar M. Akash (Al Quds Open University, Gaza Educational Region) and Asmaa M. Obaid (Al Aqsa University – Gaza), Spatial Monitoring of the Israeli Apartheid Wall: Design and Implantation of an Interactive Web-GIS based on KML Database Technology.

12:30 – 14:00 Lunch at Bethlehem University

14:00 – 18:00 Afternoon program

Continuation session 4: Towards Wall Studies

Chair: Mark Swenarton

14:00 – 15:30

 Laura McAtackney (Global Irish Institute, UCD), Peace Maintenance and Political Messages: The Significance of Walls during the ‘Troubles’ in Northern Ireland.

 Irna van der Molen (Utrecht University, Center for Conflict Studies), Reflections about Wall Studies and Conflict Resolution Studies

 Discussion with all speakers of this session.

15:30 – 16:00 Coffee/Tea Break

Continuation session 4: Towards Wall Studies

Chair: Mark Swenarton

16:00 – 18:00

 Parallel workshops on the future of Wall Studies.

 Launching Wall studies: Round Table with Mark Swenarton (Oxford Brookes University, Head of Department of Architecture), chair, and including reporters from the groups as well as the representatives of the academic conference committee.

 Discussion.

 Conclusion by Mark Swenarton.


Session 1: The Wall, space and violence

In order to investigate the diversity of options for challenging the Wall it is necessary to understand the various forms of violence it involves.

• Space and structural violence: How do we understand the structural forms of violence brought by the Wall and the system of closure and restriction? Does this understanding point to possible non-violent strategies to challenge the Wall? Are they “cracks” in the Wall?

• The Wall and symbolic violence: What are the implications of certain linguistic terms and discourses referring to the Wall, such as the dichotomy between “civilization” and “wilderness” implied by some official Israeli discourses, or the use of terms which mitigate the violence of the Wall? How does the wall threaten the cultural and symbolic systems and Palestinian traditions?

• Spectacular violence: How does the visual communication of the Wall show or hide its violence (as experienced by visitors, or in photos, videos, cartoons and other media).

Sumud and the Wall: Symbolic Violence and Resilience

Brigitte Piquard

Space and time are two basic notions on which identity, feelings of belonging, and social order are defined and organized. The Wall and the system of occupation of land have drastically modified the notions of space and time for Palestinians who are dispossessed of their lands and their lives. They experience this as a deep loss of social meaning and an ultimate form of harassment.

The Wall impacts Palestinian life through the destruction of the social and spatial environment. The confiscation of land, the destruction of visual perspective, the closure of enclaves, the denial of privacy, the destruction of landscape, and the systematic control of Palestinian places of memories and social meanings can be described as acts of ‘spaciocide’ and ‘urbicide’ (massive destruction and disorganization of space and cities) and even, in combination with symbolic violence, as a form of ethnocide (the deliberate eradication of the culture of a specific group).

At the same time, Palestinians, through their will to stay on the land, and to exist against all odds have strengthened their notion of sumud, their resilience and steadfastness.

This paper aims to put the topics of the conference into theoretical and practical perspectives.

Dr Brigitte Piquard has an MA – Sociology (Catholic University of Louvain); MA – Islamic Studies and Arabic Language (Louvain); PhD – International Relations (Louvain). She is Senior Lecturer in International Humanitarianism at Oxford Brookes University, UK, and Associate Professor and Director of the Master programme in International Humanitarian Action, Université de Paris Est – Créteil Val de Marne, France. She has conducted extensive research and published on humanitarian actions; peace and conflict issues particularly concerning Afghanistan, Pakistan, South East Asia and the Middle East, particularly the OPT. Research interests include space and violence, gender and conflict, Islamic NGOs, anthropology applied to humanitarian action, and cultures of war.

Zionism and Propaganda in the Age of Unreason:

The Massive Walls of Public Opinion

Harriet Malinowitz

This presentation will attempt to explain some of the conceptual walls that enable public opinion (primarily in Israel and the United States) to support physical boundaries such as the Apartheid Wall. These conceptual walls are not simply the result of abstract human states—e.g, “hate,” “fear,” “ignorance”—that can be erased by logic and reasonable argument. On the contrary, they result from systematic, well-thought-out propaganda techniques that have been honed throughout the twentieth century via the lucrative and influential field of public relations—which has capitalized on the irrationality of human beings. Zionism itself emerged, grew, and has been sustained as a powerfully persuasive ideology through this extensive machinery—which includes, but also extends well beyond, the simple promulgation of untruths.

In short, professionally-generated propaganda has succeeded in persuading mass audiences that Zionism is a just, humane, and peace-loving phenomenon in much the same way that it has succeeded in persuading audiences that multinational oil and gas companies are environmentally friendly and socially responsible and that smoking is empowering for women. So circuitously implanted are these perceptions, and so reinforced are they by networks of human affection and loyalty (families, communities, religious affiliations, voluntary organizations, recreational institutions, social alliances), that even well-supported revelations of “what really happened” do little to usurp revered historical narratives.

This, then, is the Conceptual Wall that undergirds public faith in and support for projects such as the Apartheid Wall. While many of us seeking real justice for Palestine have voiced perpetual amazement at the intractable illogic of Zionism, we need to understand how it has become so successfully installed in the imaginations of so many—and at such peril to its own adherents—if we are to effectively confront this overwhelming roadblock to the end of apartheid and freedom for the Palestinian people.

Dr Harriet Malinowitz is Professor of English and Director of the Writing Center at Long Island University in Brooklyn, New York. She has published work in the field of writing and rhetoric for many years; her current primary research interests are propaganda and the rhetorics of Zionism.

Communicating Across Walls:

Extending the Concepts of “Sumud” and the “Wall”

Jane Toby

I have been working since the late 1980’s to communicate to people in my community in the U.S. the realities of Palestinian life. Although much of this work has been well-received, communicating Palestinian lives has not been easy. I have found walls that cut deep into the psyche of people in the community and country where I live: walls that have been constructed in society and in peoples’ minds that keep out–instead of open up to– the reality of the Palestinians. The spirit of Sumud I learned of through interviews with Palestinian women has helped me on the other side of the “Separation Wall” continue this challenge of communication. This talk is about the interwoven meanings and impact of psychological, social and material walls, and human strategies to overcome them.

Dr Jane Toby serves on the committee for Middle Eastern dialogue for the newly-created Center for Middle Eastern Dialogue at the State University of New York (New Paltz) where she teaches. She served in the US Peace Corps in Nigeria and led cultural exchange programs in Verona, Italy, where she worked with DIN (Donne in Nero). She initiated WIB (Women in Black) in the Hudson Valley, N.Y. and co-founded MECR (Middle East Crisis Response) and Children of Occupation Project. She first traveled to Palestine with WIB in 2005. In 2008, under the auspices of AEI, she interviewed older Palestinian women in the Bethlehem area and has returned this spring to broaden the scope of the interviews for an adult education package for international audiences.

Sumud vs the Wall

Toine van Teeffelen

The Wall in Palestine is often compared to a form of imprisonment. In its appearance, the Wall communicates imprisonment by its imposing height and massiveness, the barbed wires, the high tech devices of surveillance, and the military roads. As a system of limiting and regulating access, imprisonment is experienced by those who live near the Wall and have been cut off from their lands, services, communities, friends and families, as well as by those who try to pass the Wall from either side and who become objects of supervision, categorization, and searching procedures. Another form of imprisonment, less recognized, occurs on the symbolic level – people on the ‘other’ side of the Wall become gradually imprisoned in reductive images and discourses of wilderness, primitiveness, and especially crime/terrorism. The Wall objectifies and dehumanizes.

The sumud or steadfastness concept employed in Palestinian community discourse can help to chart various ways of surviving and resisting the imprisonment, and bringing back the agency of the human subject. Survival and resistance strategies are here difficult to separate, and in many cases Palestinian survival or coping strategies contain aspects of resistance and vice versa. As a strategy for survival, sumud points to people who preserve the connection with the land and the community, and develop sumud economies and psychologies against the odds. As a strategy of resistance, sumud displays different genres of action and communication that articulate a sense of morale and humanity in challenging or breaking out of the Wall’s confinement.

The paper will analyze sumud by discussing public actions which express liberating and humanizing concepts of life, perspective, and movement, as opposed to the messages of death, closure and immobility emitted by the Wall.

Dr Toine van Teeffelen has conducted and published studies in discourse analysis, anthropology, and education with a focus on Palestine and the Middle East. Research interests include the concept of sumud, political metaphors, the politics of communication, communicating Palestine and pedagogy in Palestine. He is development director of the Arab Educational Institute (AEI-Open Windows) in Bethlehem, guide, and author of weblogs about daily life in Bethlehem.

In Search for Spaces of Possibility: Re-reading the Palestinian Spatio-Political Map

Yara Sharif

To work against the Israeli project of marginalization, the need to rethink architecture in Palestine calls for a new ideology which can overcome the highly orchestrated matrix of Israeli occupation. This paper is based on my doctoral research in which I’m looking at the interfaces between people, lines, documents and maps to uncover the meaning of architecture of resistance, while also searching for potential spaces of possibilities that can empower the fragmented society and bridge the gap between their divided spaces.

In this paper I will show how the current policy of hardening the border zones between Palestine/Israel brings not only division and destruction, but also produces new cultural and spatial realities which are shaped by the act of occupation. And through the corresponding will to resist and survive, I aim to reveal the power of daily patterns of behaviour which are drawing the lines for a new kind of thinking within architecture – an approach that can subvert spaces of pure oppression and change them into spaces of opportunities. These micro-scale events display creative tools that mainstream architecture and planning have so far failed to match. Importantly, these emerging tools are not necessarily based on any clear agenda of Palestinian resistance, but rather have emerged ‘unconsciously’ through the setting up of informal, silent and invisible community networks which tend to overcome and adapt to the situation. As a result they re-define the meaning of the built environment around them.

I will argue that in the acute case of Palestine/Israel, what is needed today from the Palestinian architect is a responsive strategy to empower this ‘harmless’ contribution to the act of resisting Israeli occupation. What we need today within the shifting political boundaries mightn’t require the concepts of architecture, transparency or technology in the way these have hitherto been imagined: instead, it suggests an architect-figure who can sustain social behaviour and facilitate the kinds of conditions that will create even more of these networks. What Palestine witnessed during the First Intifada offered concrete evidence that the spirit of the ‘network society’ can make a difference. The directness of the Intifada, however, may not be the best answer today; far more important are the social relationships and collective processes that have managed, silently, to empower every individual. What is needed now is an architectural and urban strategy to put the Palestinian community back into the front-line so that they can take over the act of resistance, and re-draw their own maps. If silence, invisibility and subversion are now to be the key tools, then it is time for the Palestinian architect to nourish them with responsive design interventions. This is needed not only to resist occupation, but also to heal the fractures created internally from within the Palestinian social and political structure.

Yara Sharif is a researcher and practicing architect working with Golzari-NG Architects on projects related to participatory design and social sustainability in London as well as Palestine. Yara has lived and worked in Palestine/Ramallah until 2005 where she worked as an architect in Riwaq, Centre for Architectural Conservation. Her current PhD research is entitled ’Searching for Spaces of Possibility within the Palestinian/Israeli Conflict: Healing Fractures through the Dialogue of Everyday Behaviour’, at the University of Westminster. Part of the research has been presented in the Venice Art Biennale in June 2009 and at the Riwaq Biennale in October 2010.

Abstracts session 2: Life near the Wall

Any effective advocacy vis-à-vis the Wall will relate to the life of the Palestinian citizens living near the Wall in its material, social-psychological and symbolic-communicative dimensions.

• What are the deep sources of sumud/resilience for families and communities living near the Wall or other imposed structures of occupation?

• Do these families and communities live in what is sometimes called a survival mode, or are they able to support or take initiatives for challenging the Wall? What is the relation between survival and non-violent resistance?

• How do families and communities still give social and cultural meaning to lost and desolate places taken away from community life?

• How can these citizens effectively communicate the life they are living (diaries, interviews, audio-visual media)? What key words, metaphors and discourses are used to communicate their life and experience?

Salam Says “The Wall is a Snake.” The Impact of the Wall on Palestinian Children’s Education: Facts and Photos

Saida Affouneh

The construction of the wall affects Palestinian life in general and education in particular by adding more obstacles to restrict the movement of teachers and students. A total number of 22 local communities have been separated from their schools as a result of the wall, so nearly 3000 students and their teachers need to pass through the wall’s ‘gates’ every day. This paper aims at giving a qualitative and quantitative evidence of the impact of the wall on Palestinian children’s education through listening to their narrative stories and viewing their photos. A case study of two schools in Ramallah is selected and children interviewed. The paper also provides facts on the number of schools, children and teachers that have been affected by the Wall, distributed by area and gender. The paper ends by drawing a picture of Palestinian solidarity in facing the wall and continuing their education despite all the odds.

Dr Saida Affouneh is the director of the Community and Continuing Education Centre at Al Quds Open University. She previously was Director of Planning for the Ministry of Education in Palestine and also for Al Quds Open University. She is the coordinator of the strategic plan for e-learning. She has a PhD in Decentralization and Emergency Education from the University of Huddersfield, and started postdoctoral research about the role of distance and open education for women’s empowerment. She published the book Education under Occupation and two papers about the impact of occupation on the spiritual development of children in Palestine. She is a member of INEE.

The Influence of the Wall upon the Structure of Social Relations in the Palestinian Family

Imad A. Ishtayyeh and Hosni Awwad

Despite the extreme hardships the Palestinian society has suffered during the occupation, people invented several ways to express their power to hold the society together and maintain solidarity. The Palestinians in the occupied land especially took recourse to the institute of the family. This study sets out to know the influence which the wall leaves upon the structure of the social relations in the Palestinian family, in particular, the influence of the segregation wall on the organization of the relations

– within the families living behind the wall

– between the relatives of the families living behind the wall

– between the relatives of the families living behind the wall and the surrounding communities

– in relation to some variables like the degree of closure imposed upon the community, gender, the social situation, and age.

The study is among other things based on the results of interviews with those directly affected by the wall.

Dr Imad A. Ishtayyeh holds a PhD in Sociology/Social Work from the University of Baghdad. He has been director of the Social and Family Development Program at Al-Quds Open University since 2007. He has published studies including “The role of institutions for social upbringing in reinforcing a culture for the right of return”, “The obstacles in reaching full quality in the application of practical training in social service ,” and a manual for field training in 2008. He is a member of advisory and steering committees of institutions in social work and social care in Palestine, such as Defense for Children International (DCI), Al-Mustaqbal Society for Development and Democracy, and the Society Resources Development Center.

Dr Hosni Awwad works as a lecturer at Al-Quds Open University. He holds a PhD in educational and psychological counseling from Sudan Science and Technology University. Besides publishing studies, he works as coach at the Community and Continuing Education Centre at Al Quds Open University and Palestine University. He is an expert in statistical analysis and e-learning, a coordinator and designer of courses in e-learning, the vice chairman of the syndicate in Palestine of psychologists and social workers, and a member of the World Association of Muslim Psychologists.

د. عماد اشتية و د. حسني عوض

جامعة القدس المفتوحة

عاش المجتمع الفلسطيني ظروفاً صعبة وقاسية خلال سنوات الاحتلال، كان من أبرزها هجرة الفلسطينيين وتشردهم في بقاع مختلفة من العالم، ومع ذلك حافظ الفلسطينيون على علاقاتهم القرابية حيثما هُجّروا، كما حافظوا على مستوى عالٍ من التضامن والتماسك داخل المجتمع الفلسطيني، وخلال سنوات الانتفاضة الأولى وما قبلها ابتدع الفلسطينيون وسائل متعددة للتعبير عن قوة تماسكهم وتضامنهم وبخاصة في ظل غياب المؤسسة الوطنية الرسمية، فاتجهوا نحو مؤسسة الأسرة والعائلة للقيام بهذا الدور . ولم تقتصر شبكة العلاقات الاجتماعية للأسرة الفلسطينية على العلاقات الداخلية فقط بل امتدت لتشمل علاقات قرابية متشعبة، كما أن تغيرا جوهريا قد حدث على نمط الأسرة الفلسطينية بما فيها الأسرة الريفية فتحولت من أسرة ممتدة إلى أسرة نووية صغيرة مع الاحتفاظ بعلاقات قوية مع أسرة التوجيه.

ان المتتبع لخريطة العلاقات الاجتماعية الأسرية في المجتمع الفلسطيني يلاحظ أن هذه العلاقات امتدت لتأخذ ثلاثة أشكال رئيسة تتمثل في نسق العلاقات الأسرية الداخلية، ونسق العلاقات الاجتماعية القرابية ونسق العلاقات الاجتماعية مع المحيط الاجتماعي والمجتمع المحلي ، وان لكل نسق من هذه العلاقات وظيفة اجتماعية يقوم بها.

كما أن نظام المصاهرة والنسب في المجتمع الفلسطيني قد ساهم بشكل كبير بتطوير العلاقات الاجتماعية بين العائلات الفلسطينية وامتد إلى خارج التجمع السكاني الواحد ليكون واحد من وظائفه تقوية شبكة العلاقات الاجتماعية بين التجمعات السكانية وبخاصة تلك القريبة من بعضها البعض.

إذا لم تبقى المجتمعات الفلسطينية المحلية مغلقة على نفسها بل امتدت خارج الجغرافيا فاتسعت الجغرافيا الاجتماعية وتشابكت مع التجمعات المحيطة من خلال علاقات الزواج والنسب والمصاهرة مما تطلب استمرار هذه العلاقات من خلال الزيارات المتواصلة مع ما لهذه الزيارات من وظيفة اجتماعية تمسكت بها الأسرة الفلسطينية.

بالرغم من إصرار المجتمع الفلسطيني على الحفاظ على تماسكه الاجتماعي إلا أن هناك ظروف قصريه خارجه عن إرادته مورست عليه بقوة القهر والإجبار لإضعاف بنية العلاقات الاجتماعية للأسرة الفلسطينية، وكان آخرها جدار الفصل الذي أقامته دولة الاحتلال، لذا جاءت هذه الدراسة للتعرف على اثر جدار الفصل على بنية العلاقات الاجتماعية للأسرة الفلسطينية ودرجة تماسكها، وبخاصة تلك الأسر التي بقيت معزولة داخل الجدار في كانتونات مغلقة، وعلاقة ذلك كله ببعض المتغيرات الديموغرافية كمتغير درجة حصار التجمع السكاني ، الجنس، الحالة الاجتماعية، العمر. مسخدمة المنهج الوصفي التحليلي من خلال اسبانة بنيت لهذا الغرض، اضافة الى استخدام المقابلة المعمقة مع عدد من المتأثرين بشكل مباشر من الجدار كأداة ثانية للدراسة.

وقد اشارت النتائج الاولية للدراسة الى ان الجدار قد عزز العلاقات الداخلية للاسرة التي تقع داخل الجدار، كما عزز من العلاقات البينية لهذه الاسر. في حين ان نسق العلاقات القرابية قد اصابه الضعف وبخاصة بين الاسر التي تقع داخل الجدار واقاربهم الذي يقيمون خارجه ، اما بخصوص العلاقات الاجتماعية للأسر التي قع داخل الجدار مع المحيط الاجتماعي الخارجي فقد وصلت الى ادنى مستوياتها بسبب القيود المفروضة على حركة السكان الذين يقيمون داخل الجدار وبخاصة حين ياخذ التواصل الشكل الاسري و

Reaching Customers beyond the Wall: A Case Study of the Praxis

Claudia Devaux

When circumstances no longer permit persons to continue earning a living by exercising skills in their area of expertise, they are forced to reinvent themselves. In doing so, they are faced with multiple obstacles including that of developing new knowledge and new skills while simultaneously dealing with the psychological effect of the loss of identity and heritage associated with the skills passed on to them from their parents as well as the psychological effect of fear in starting over. Thus persons who find themselves in this kind of situation may be forced to deal with multiple crises simultaneously. What can be done to support heads of household in restructuring their lives so as to move forward to regain their ability to provide for themselves and their family?

This paper will discuss a case study of a collaborative undertaking between the parents of five children whose source of income was drastically reduced when the construction of the Separation Wall in 2002 blocked customer access to their auto repair garage and shops and a partner who, from afar, is shepherding the development of a new business that reaches customers in a market niche beyond the Wall. The analysis of the praxis is facilitated by Lev Vygotsky’s social-cultural activity theory involving person-to-person interaction in the “zone of proximal development” which can be defined as the gap between what one can do independently and what one cannot do even with assistance.

Dr Claudia Devaux spent more than two decades managing marketing programs at a major international company. Her academic background includes education, computer science, and theology; she has taught at all levels from kindergarten through university in China, France, and the United States and now is involved in bringing visitors to the Holy Land as well as partnering with a start-up business in Bethlehem. For the purpose of this paper, she represents the Holy Land Institute, a ministry of St. Thomas More Church in San Francisco.

Rachel’s Tomb: An Alien in her Hometown? Perceptions from the Other Side of the Wall

Ingeborg Tiemann

Lucia Maria Russo

Elise Aghazarian

Andrea Merli

Rachel is a significant female icon, important in Judaism, Christianity and Islam, whose tomb is located in a contested area currently characterized by a dividing wall and rapid landscape transformation. This exploratory research documents the transformations of the place with testimonies of people who still remember how it has been in the past, and who have witnessed the transformation.

By means of photographic documentation, field observation, literature analysis and firsthand accounts this study provides unique documentation on a specific dimension of Bethlehem’s context. Researchers have followed a qualitative approach employing a non-random snowball sampling procedure and conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with people living in the neighborhood of Rachel’s Tomb. The status of Rachel’s Tomb in relation to religious and personal narratives in the context of a larger map of Palestinian identities is examined.

Dr Ingeborg Tiemann, PhD in Comparative Religious Studies at Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht. Consultant at Bethlehem University for Participatory Learning / Commissioned by the Association for Development Cooperation (AGEH), Germany, for a Civil Peace Work Program at Bethlehem University.

Dr Lucia Maria Russo, currently working for VIS (Volonatriato Internazionale per lo Sviluppo) as Project Coordinator for the Master’s Program in Cooperation and Development offered at Bethlehem University.

Elise Aghazarian is a Palestinian sociologist or Armenian origin raised in Jerusalem. Following her studies in the Palestinian Territories and the Netherlands, she has worked on research and project coordination on themes related to culture, politics, gender and social movements, and as teacher of Sociology in Bethlehem University. Her academic interests include: Sociology of place, cultural politics, critical theory, colonial relations, knowledge production and civil society in the Arab context. She is currently based in Amsterdam and Jerusalem.

Andrea Merli, photographer and former lecturer at Bethlehem University.

Andrea Merli will focus mainly on the photographs. Elise Aghazarian has been invited to present the more theoretical background from a Palestinian perspective.

Abstracts session 3: Activism and Sumud Practices

New initiatives show that sumud can be expressed in community activities which defy the Wall, checkpoints and settlements but also redefine and in some cases even reconstitute the built environment. Examples are Wall graffiti and murals, new architectural constructions, non-violent actions near the Wall or settlements, children or family events, installation arts, film projections on the Wall, the organization of markets and festivals adjacent to the Wall or checkpoints, the development of prayer or meditation places, and alternative tourist itineraries.

• Sustained activism to prevent the building of the Wall: Reflections on long-term non-violent methods and strategies against the Wall, such as in Bil’in and Nilin. How do we assess effectiveness? How do we support those practices as empowering strategies?

• New practices on/at the Wall: Experiences and reflections on graffiti murals, film screening on the Wall, drama, architectural initiatives, hip hop events, classical concerts, religious-meditative celebrations near the Wall (or, alternatively, at military watchtowers and checkpoints).

• International advocacy and the Wall: Reflections on campaigns based on the 2005 advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice. Integrating international and local-Palestinian campaigns.

• Wall tours and tourism: What is the role of internationals, including pilgrims, visiting the Wall, staying at families living there, participating in tourist events, doing volunteering work? Can and should the Wall become a tourist attraction without minimizing its negative impacts? Can the Wall become a national emblem of the resilience of the Palestinians?

The Experience of Bil’in in the Popular Peaceful Resistance against the Wall and Settlements

Raeb Abu Rahmeh

Bil’in is a small village in the district of Ramallah, which has opposed land expropriations and the building of settlements long before it became known for its popular resistance against the building of the wall. More than 200 actions were performed in Bil’in against the building of the wall on its land. The paper describes how Bil’in became a symbol of peaceful resistance both at the local and the national level of Palestine, and how other villages followed its model. We will explore the reasons why the resistance model became a success by especially focusing on the sharing by the community, the abilities, confidence and initiative-taking, the creativity of the actions, and the solidarity, including from Israeli activists. Finally, a detailed list will be presented of the results of the actions, at both internal and external levels.

Dr Raeb Abu Rahmeh holds a doctorate in educational and psychological counseling, and works as a lecturer at Al Quds Open University in the program of social and family development. He is a regular speaker about the wall in the West Bank and the experience of Bil’in in the popular struggle against the wall and settlements at many universities and civil society institutions in the US and Europe. He is media coordinator of the Popular Committee against the Israeli Wall and Settlements in the village of Bil’in, and an active member in many other organizations of the Palestinian community. His best hobbies are volunteer work, community servicing and supporting people in need.

تجربة بلعين في المقاومة الشعبية السلمية ضد الجدار والاستيطان


د. راتب أبو رحمه

جامعة القدس المفتوحة

بلعين قرية صغيرة وادعة تحيط بها الأودية والجبال ، تنتصف الطريق بين يافا والقدس ، وهي من القرى التابعة لمحافظة رام لله من الجهة الغربية ، حيث تبعد عنها 16كم ، عدد سكانها حوالي 1800 نسمة ، يعمل معظمهم في الزراعة ، ومساحة أرضها (4000) دونم . عرف أهلها بالبساطة والطيبة وحسن الجوار ، حيث أنهم محبون للحرية والسلام ، ويرفضون الظلم والاضطهاد .

تعرضت أرضها للمصادرة أكثر من مرة وكانت تستغل لغرض الاستيطان ، في بداية عام 1980 بنيت مستوطنة “ميتاتياهو” على جزء من أرضها ، وفي بداية عام 1990 صودر جزء آخر حيث بني عليه مستوطنة “كريات سيفر” وفي مطلع هذا القرن عام 2002 بني مستوطنة جديدة سميت مستوطنة “ميتاتياهو الشرقية “.

وفي نيسان عام2004 بلغ المجلس القروي عن نية الحكومة الإسرائيلية في بناء جدار فاصل على أراضي القرية ، وقد قام المجلس بدوره بتبليغ المواطنين في القرية ، مما دفعهم لتشكيل لجنة شعبية لمقاومة هذا الجدار ومستوطناته ، حيث حرصوا على أن تمثل أكبر فئة من سكان القرية ، وقد أخذت هذه اللجنة على عاتقها مهمة متابعة ملف الجدار في القرية ، والتحضير للفعاليات اليومية والأسبوعية ، والتواصل مع المتضامنين الدوليين والإسرائيليين ، ومتابعة هذا الملف من الناحية القانونية والتواصل مع المحامين والمستشارين القانونين في هذا الموضوع .

منذ 20 شباط عام 2005 تحولت قرية بلعين غرب رام الله، من مجرد قرية عادية هادئة، إلى قصة مقاومة فلسطينية ضد الجدار، فتقيّم الفعاليات، ليتحول ظهر الجمعة، إلى تنغيص مبرمج لمزاج “حراس الجدار” الذين سئموا استخدام الأسلحة تلو الأخرى دون فائدة.

إن أكثر من200 فعالية نفذت في بلعين ضد بناء الجدار على أراضيها، والكثير منها ارتبط في السنوات الأخيرة بمناسبات وطنية كانت تهدف إلى ربط جريمة بناء الجدار على الأرض في الذاكرة الفلسطينية، حتى لا ينسى.

وفي بدايات فعاليات بلعين، كانت تنظم المسيرات يوميا في محاولة لمجاراة العمل المتسارع في الجدار، وبعد شهرين تحولت هذه المسيرات إلى مظاهرات منظمة مرتين أسبوعيا، وبعد ذلك استقر الحال على أن تكون بلعين محطة مقاومة الجدار ظهر كل جمعة فلسطينية وبزخم أكبر في كل مرة.

رمز للمقاومة:

إن بلعين أصبحت تمثل رمزا للمقاومة السلمية سواء على مستوى محلي أو دولي، إلى جانب أنها أصبحت نموذجا يحتذى به في مناطق عديدة في الضفة الغربية وخاصة في قرية المعصرة ، وفي نعلين ، ودير نظام والنبي صالح والشيخ جراح وسلوان وبورين وبيت أمر وصافا.

لماذا نجحت بلعين؟

إن أهم عوامل نجاح تجربة بلعين تكمن في حالة الوحدة التي أبدتها كافة الفعاليات المشاركة، وخاصة أبناء القرية ذاتهم، إلى جانب وجود قيادة تمثل كافة الشرائح في القرية ومحيطها اتسمت بالثقة والكفاءة والقدرة على الإبداع والابتكار.

وأن التواصل مع المتضامنين الدوليين ونشطاء السلام الإسرائيليين شكل داعما قويا في رفع صوت الإنسان الفلسطيني ضد الجدار محليا وعالميا، وفتح المجال أمام ابتكارات وإبداعات جديدة في الكثير من الفعاليات. كما أن تنوع الفعاليات وتجددها في كل مرة أوجد عاملا من الجذب عند المشاركين وكذلك عند وسائل الإعلام التي أصبحت تجد مادة جديدة في كل فعالية.

والإبداع :

لقد كانت فعالية تربيط الزيتون عنوانا للإبداع ، حيث تجلت فيها المقاومة السلمية والتي عبرت عن التصاق الإنسان الفلسطيني مع جذور تلك الشجرة المقدسة ، وقد كانت هذه الفعالية فاتحة الطريق للعديد من مثيلاتها من فعاليات أخرى مثل البراميل ، والصناديق ، والسجن والمشانق ، والتوابيت والشواهد (شواهد القبور ) والأشرطة اللاصقة ، والمرايا ، والأفعى ، والجسر الحديدي ، والأسطوانة ، والقبر الكبير ، والعلم الفلسطيني الكبير ، والأعلام الصغيرة الكثيرة ، والميزان ، والزوايا والرايات السود ….. الخ . ورغم المجهود الكبير الذي يحتاجه القائمون على الفعالية لإنجاحها، إلا أن استمرارية تنظيم المسيرة الأسبوعية حتى في أيام الأعياد. وتنظيم مسيرات ضخمة ومركزية كل حين، كان من أهم عوامل إنجاحها.

أسلحة جديد لقمع التظاهرات السلمية:

قمع جيش الاحتلال بصورة وحشية للمسيرات السلمية أمام وسائل الإعلام، واستخدام أسلحة جديدة في كل مرة مثل المياه الملونة الممزوجة بالغاز التي تشوه الجلد، والمياه النتنة” رائحة الظربان” والإسفنج الحارق، وكرات ملتهبة، والصاعق، والرصاص المعدني المغلف بالمطاط بكافة أشكاله، وقنابل الغاز بشتى أنواعها والتي كان آخرها النوع الصاروخي الذي أستخدم في قتل الشهيد باسم أبو رحمه، ورصاص يشوه مكان الإصابة وغيرها الكثير، الذي أصاب حتى اليوم أكثر من 1200 مواطن دون تسجيل حالات الاختناق بالغاز. بينما وصل عدد المعتقلين إلى أكثر من 85 معظمهم أفرج عنهم بعد انتهاء مدة حكمهم في السجن ودفع كفالات وغرامات مالية ، حيث بقي في السجون الإسرائيلية ولغاية الآن تسعة معتقلين وعلى رأسهم منسق اللجنة الشعبية لمقاومة الجدار والاستيطان، عبد الله أبو رحمه والناشط أديب أبو رحمه.

نتائج التجربة:

1. في تاريخ 492007 أصدرت المحكمة العليا الإسرائيلية قرارا ينص على تغيير مسار الجدار. وبدء العمل بالمسار الجديد بتاريخ 15/2/2010. ليعيد للقرية حوالي 1000 دونم.

2. وإبقاء البوابة مفتوحة للمواطنين للعمل في أرضهم ولم تغلق وخصوصا طوال ساعات النهار.

3. هدم بعض البيوت في المستوطنة وإعادة بعض القطع داخل المستوطنة وفي محيطها.

4. أصبحت قرية بلعين رمزا للمقاومة الشعبية وخصوصا في مقاومة الجدار ، وطنيا وعالميا ،ومحط أنظار التضامن الدولي .

5. وحدة القرية وتكافلها .

6. أصبحت بلعين مزارا سياحيا ، رسميا وشعبيا .

7. حصول اللجنة الشعبية لمقاومة الجدار على أربع جوائز على المستوى المحلي والدولي.

8. نجاح اللجنة الشعبية في إيقاف التوسع الاستيطاني.

9. تحويل الأرض خلف الجدار إلى جنة خضراء من خلال تشجيع المواطنين على استصلاح الأرض وزراعتها.

10. عمل المؤتمرات الدولية لمقاومة الاحتلال والجدار والمستوطنات ومن أجل تعميم تجربة بلعين في المقاومة الشعبية.

ملاحظة: سوف ندعم هذه التجربة بالعديد من التجارب والصور والأفلام والمقالات التي تحدثت عن التجربة.

Popular resistance: Past Successes and Future Prospects

Mazin Qumsiyeh

There has been a rich history of popular resistance to Zionism in Palestine over 130 years. We will discuss examples of these and lessons drawn during: 1) the Ottoman rule (from the first colonies in 1878 until 1917); 2) the British era including the 1936-1939 uprising; 3) the period between the start of WWII and the Nakba of destruction of hundreds of Palestinian towns and villages between 1947-1949; 4) the period of fragmentation of the Palestinian population in exile and divided among the rule of Israel, Jordan and Egypt (to 1967); 5) the unification under one ethnocentric Jewish state after 1967 to 1987; the uprising of 1987-1991; 6) the Oslo years 1992-2000; and 7) the Al Aqsa Intifada starting in 2000, including popular resistance against the building of the Apartheid wall.

Dr Mazin Qumsiyeh teaches and does research at Bethlehem and Birzeit Universities in occupied Palestine. He previously served on the faculties of the University of Tennessee, Duke and Yale Universities. He served on the board/steering/executive committees of a number of groups including Peace Action Education Fund, the US Campaign to End the Occupation, the Palestinian American Congress, Association for One Democratic State in Israel/Palestine, and He is now president of the Palestinian Center for Rapprochement Between People and coordinator of the Popular Committee to Defend Ush Ghrab (PCDUG).

Effective Non-Violent Action: The Wall and Beyond

William W Thomson

Non-violent action (NVA) is a strategy; it is goal-driven, seeking to achieve an effective end result through the practise of one or more of 200 forms of non-violent methods. When analysing a protracted conflict such as the Israel-Palestine conflict, it is clear that there is a need for more than one type of non-violent strategy, and it is important to examine their effectiveness at bringing about lasting change beyond the issue at hand. This paper shall seek to integrate two types of NVA which have the benefit of promoting reconciliation. The first examines the concept of protest in relation to the Bi’lin case; considering the method and targets of the protest, the responses to it, asking; if it succeeds in its aims, how will this help maintain peace and security for both Israelis and Palestinians? The second type of strategic NVA involves the practise of ‘dialogue and reconciliation’, a non-coercive method of bringing about changed attitudes. This will consider the physical barriers that need to be broken as well as the emotional, rational and ideological obstacles between the two nations.

This paper is based on ongoing research conducted in 2009, throughout Israel and the Palestinian Territories, where I am examining the impact of joint cooperation and methods of NVA in the protracted conflict. The overall argument suggests that NVA, when practiced within a protracted conflict cannot be purely for self-interest, it also has to be in the interest of others in order to bring about peaceful change. The engagement with methods of nonviolence needs to be holistic, applying multiple methods of NVA, practised by both sides. Otherwise, the cycle of violence and security development which characterises the Israel-Palestine conflict, will continue.

William W Thomson is currently working towards a PhD in International Relations at the Centre of Peace and Conflict Studies, University of St Andrews in Scotland, UK. With a previous military background in the Royal Marines, his experience of peacekeeping in territorial/religious/ideological protracted conflict helps to inform his understanding of conflict processes at a security and social level. William went on to study for an Honours Degree in Theology followed by a Research Masters in Political and International Relations with a focus on conflict resolution and peace studies. The current research in conflict analysis examines the impact of ‘Strategic Non-violent Action’ within protracted conflict. Other academic interests situate the concept and practice of peace from international political theory and world religions into a political discourse, developing the multi-dimensions of peace within the context of conflict resolution and reconciliation.

Moving From Pilgrimage to ‘Dark’ Tourism: Reinventing Palestine

Rami Isaac

Travelling to places associated with death is not a new phenomenon. People have long been drawn, purposefully or otherwise, towards sites, attractions and events linked in one way or another with death, suffering, violence or disaster. War-related attractions, though diverse, are a subset of the totality of tourist sites associated with death and suffering. The perception of safety and security is also a major determinant in the travelers’ decision to visit a place. Any conflict where people are dying definitely means a negative impact on the local tourism businesses. The perception of a personal threat to the visitor is crucial. Tourists go happily to poor countries where people are routinely dying. The daily diet of war and conflict stories that have emanated from the second uprising (Intifada), gives the impression that the tourism industry is the least likely sector to flourish. The spatial context of this paper – Palestine – is crucial. The Holy Land has always been an important destination for Christian, Jewish and Moslem pilgrims from all over the World. Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and its sites, especially Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth are known to have been visited as early as the second century. Pilgrimage and hospitality have been defining features of the economy and society of the Holy Land and Palestine for 2000 years. This paper assesses how a subset of ‘dark’ and possibly other forms of tourism such as ‘Wall Tourism’ may play role in providing different forms of tourism as an ‘adds on’ to the existing dominant – pilgrim- type of tourism. This article investigates the potential for developing new forms of tourism, since Palestine has been undergoing through violence, tension and political instability since 1948 and arguably for a generation earlier between and among Jews and Arabs, Israelis and the Palestinians. This paper also attempts to shed light on how tourism and tourist practices in Palestine endorse to legitimise the Palestinian ‘right of return’, and the acknowledgement of ‘Nakba’ in 1948.

Dr Rami K. Isaac is Lecturer Tourism, Planning & Development at the Centre for Cross-Cultural Understanding, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands.

Abstracts session 4: Towards Wall studies

The conference is scheduled to launch a new academic field – Wall studies, to be built among other things on an integrated and comprehensive understanding of the impact of the Wall and the possibilities of challenging it.

• Practical conceptualization. How to develop concepts to be used by practitioners? How to translate research into empowering strategies? What is the relevance of newly introduced legal concepts like “spatiocide” and “urbicide”?

• Creative conceptualization. How to link research on the Wall and design projects and artistic initiatives?

• Developing cooperation. What are meaningful areas of interdisciplinary cooperation and action research? Comparisons with other Walls across history and contexts.

The Influence of the Segregation Wall in the West Bank: Social Reflections upon the Future of the Palestinian People

Adnan Ayash

This study will take the direction to recognize the wall from where it started, its different stages, its influence upon the natural and human order close to places where the wall has been built. It will offer conclusions and solutions for lightening the suffering of the communities affected. Specifically we will aim to represent the influence of the building of the wall on the geographic situation in Palestine; the fact that the wall is built upon land within the borders of 1967 and thus on occupied lands, and how the wall is built against principles of human rights and international law. With the example of the village of Jayyous, we will analyze how the wall is aimed to replace the Palestinian people by colonies populated by people from allover the world, under the influence of Zionism.

Dr Adnan Hussein Abdullah Ayash was born in Arafat in 1952. In 1976 he completed a BA in history from the Arabic University in Beirut; in 1989 a higher studies diploma of Saint Joseph University, and in 1991 an MA in history from Saint Joseph University. In 2001 he completed a PhD in history at Al-Neilean University in the Republic of Sudan. An associate professor, he is academic supervisor at Al Quds Open University in the Salfeet Educational Region.

جدار الفصل العنصري في الضفة الغربية

وانعكاساته الاجتماعية على مستقبل الشّعب الفلسطيني

إعداد : د.عدنان عياش


يدور موضوع هذه الدراسة حول جدار الفصل العنصري الذي يقام على أراضي الضفة الغربية، وانعكاساتها الاجتماعية على مستقبل الشعب الفلسطيني(جيوس نموذجا). تتطرق الدراسة إلى تعريف عام للجدار من حيث بدايته، مواصفاته، مراحله، آثاره.ثم إلى الضوابط الطبيعية والبشرية للسكان القريبين من أماكن بناء الجدار(على سبيل المثال قرية جيوس في محافظة قلقيلية). وأخيرا طرح الحلول والتوصيات التي قد تخفف من معاناة أبناء

التجمعات السكانية التي شملها بناء الجدار.

أهمية البحث:

تنبع أهمية هذه الدراسة من خطورة الآثار السلبية لبناء هذا الجدار على الشعب والأراضي الفلسطينية, حيث يعيش السكان في كنتونات معزولة ومحاصرة, إضافة إلى اقتطاع جزء من القرى والأراضي الفلسطينية داخل الجدار مما يؤدي بسكان هذه القرى إلى العيش في ظروف سيئة (اجتماعية وأمنية ونفسية) مما يضطرهم إلى الهجرة وترك بيوتهم وهذا ما تسعى له إسرائيل من اجل مصادرة الأراضي الفلسطينية.

مشكلة الدراسة:

منذ انتفاضة الأقصى والشعب الفلسطيني يتعرض لهجمة واعتداءات عسكرية إسرائيلية بشكل يومي وعلى كافة مجريات الحياة الاجتماعية , فمن سياسة الاعتقال والقتل إلى سياسة الحصار والإغلاق ومصادرة الأراضي وهدم البيوت إلى سياسة العقاب الجماعي وذلك من اجل فرض الهيمنة والسيطرة عليه وتجريده من حقه في العيش في دولة مستقلة, لذا كان قرار بناء الجدار العازل بين الضفة الغربية وإسرائيل هو بمثابة سياسة إسرائيلية جديدة ضد الشعب الفلسطيني ,حيث سيؤدي هذا الجدار إلى فصل المدن والقرى الفلسطينية عن بعضها وتقطيع التواصل الجغرافي .

الهدف من الدراسة:

الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو بيان:

• تأثير بناء الجدار على الوضع الجغرافي في فلسطين

• هذا الجدار يقام على أراضي فلسطينية داخل حدود عام 1967م وهي أراض محتلة.

• هذا الجدار مخالف لحقوق الإنسان والقانون الدولي.

المنهج المستخدم في المعالجة:

للإجابة على مشكلة الدراسة وانجازها, رأى الباحث استخدام المنهج الوصفي التحليلي وذلك من خلال استعراض دوافع وآثار بناء الجدار ومن ثم تحليل وتقييم تلك الآثار والخروج بنتائج وتوصيات, وسوف يتم الاعتماد على الدراسات المنشورة من قبل الباحثين والدراسات المتعلقة بهذا الموضوع.

النتائج المتوقعة للبحث:

سيظهر من خلال الدراسة ان اسرائيل تهدف إلى خلق واقع جديد في الاراضي الفلسطينية حبث:

1 ـ تعتزم اسرائيل القضاء على وجود الشعب الفلسطيني واستبداله بوجود استيطاني، الترحيل الإكراهي،و التغريب داخل الوطن

2 ـ الممارسة الإسرائيلية تستهدف الإنسان والتاريخ والجغرافيا والطبيعة والوسط البيئي في نفس الوقت.

3 ـ فكر الصهيونية وممارستها في فلسطين، يسعيان الى الاستيلاء على الأرض وإفناء أصحابها التاريخيين والشرعيين، وخلق نقيض إقامة الدولة الفلسطينية .

Spatial Monitoring of the Israeli Apartheid Wall

Design and Implantation of a an Interactive Web-GIS Based on KML Database Technology

Anwar M. Akasha and Asma H. Obaid

Originally approved in April 2002, The Israeli apartheid wall is actually a series of walls, razor wire, electrified fences, trenches, and watchtowers flanked by a 30- to 75-yard “buffer zone” which the Israeli military patrols. The first phase of construction was launched in June 2002 and finished 13 months later in July 2003. As of July 2009, about 300 miles (60%) of the barrier was completed and much of the rest was tied up by petitions to the Israeli Supreme Court and Justice Ministry deliberations. According to the Jerusalem Post, work is being done on mostly constructed sections of the fence and areas that have to be rerouted in response to court rulings. The completed section stretches for 458 miles in the northwestern West Bank districts of Jenin, Tulkarem, and Qalqiliya, Ramallah, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem.

The objective of this research is to develop an interactive Web based Geographic Information System to monitor and documents the wall by visualizing, creating, and storing geographic information data, in a format that can be easily displayed in earth browsers, such as Google Maps and Google Earth and also storing this information in different KML formats and have it easily accessible to be displayed in a Google map. The project will allow users to view, create, and download geographic information and explore different methods of interaction with Google maps. The main goal is to use Google solution and other existing technology to display geospatial data, to allow users to interact with maps by creating their own visual representation of data, and to store it in different forms, and also to allow them to share the results with other users and applications. Finally, some of the system functionality will be exposed as a web service. Users will be able to interact with the system by calling methods, which return objects and KML documents that contain the geospatial data.

Anwar Mohammed Akasha holds BSc and MSc degrees in Computer Science from Southern University in Louisiana, USA. He is currently working on his PhD research at Ain Shams University In Egypt. He is a lecturer at Al-Quds Open University since 1993, worked there as an academic assistant and as coordinator of the Program of Technology and Applied Science for the Office of Vice President for Gaza Strip Affairs. He is a founder and chairman of the board of the Palestinian Computer Society, member of the Council of Technology and Applied Science Program at Al-Quds Open University, and a member of the Higher Supervision Committee at the Khaddouri Technological Center.

Asma Obaid is head of the Programming and Systems Analysis section at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology and part time lecturer at Al-Aqsa University in Gaza. She is currently working on her PhD research at Ain Shams University In Egypt. She obtained an MA degree in Educational Technology from Women’s College at Ain Shams University and the University of Al-Aqsa. She has a BA

degree In Technology and Applied Science/Computer Information Systems at Al-Quds Open University. She acquired General and Special Diplomas in Education from the University of Al-Aqsa. She has been computer teacher at all stages of primary and secondary schools in the Latin Monastery and the Holy Family. She is a member of the Joint Initiative Commission between the Ministry of Electronic Communications and Information Technology and the Ministry of Education and Higher Education. She is also a mem

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